Conducted by: Cape Peninsula University of Technology
The presentation presents key aspects emerging from Phase 1 of a study to develop a framework to assess the economic impact of coastal and marine tourism in South Africa. The desktop study is to review relevant literature which provides a national and international perspective to identify best practices and current trends with regard to assessing the economic impacts of CMT in order to inform the development of a framework to assess CMT’s contribution to South Africa’s tourism sector. The development of a standardised framework will assist in measuring, monitoring and managing the economic impacts of CMT in South Africa. The literature reviewed in this desktop study includes a global and national overview of CMT, its economic contribution, Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and measuring economic impacts. An overview of Operations Phakisa is presented first to provide context to the study. Key issues in relation to CTM include the socio-economic and environmental/ conversation roles of CTM, the importance of MPAs specifically and increasing threats that impact on CTM which includes climate change, economic shifts, security concerns and developmental demands. The economic contributions of CTM case studies are discussed in relation to the scope of research undertaken and the main methodological approaches adopted. Thereafter the main approaches to measure economic impacts of CTM are considered which include cost-benefit analysis (CBA), Input-Output (I-O) models, General Equilibrium Models (GEM), Tourism Satellite Account (TSA) and time-series forecasting methods. The key issues for consideration include addressing secondary benefits and multiplier effects; type, scope and quality of data/ information required, sample sizes and how to ensure reliability and validity. Guidelines for the economic impact assessment of CTM are proposed together with the identification of key indicators and recommended phases for implementation.